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Thursday, 6 July 2017

Richard Pearson FRAS–The Universe Today part 4: Time Travel

11182339_794895210596542_8220998414791220126_nIt is the staple of science fiction writers to introduce the ability to travel in time, either into the future or back through time. Time travel into the future is easy according to Albert Einstein’s theory of general relativity. Every individual, alien or otherwise, have their own clock that measures time relative each other, so if an individual is able to slow down his own clock, he will age more slowly and live longer, giving a sense of Time Travel into the future. This process is called time dilation, and we are on the scale of humanoids and spaceships, although it must also affect atomic particles on the quantum level.

One needs to either travel in a star ship at great speed, approaching the speed of light, or stand in a star ship close to a very massive body in space like a black hole. Travelling at light speed the space ship becomes ever more massive, which becomes infinite at the speed of light itself. This mass is sufficient to slow down the personal body clock of the astronaut inside the space ship. Ten years of speed of light travel will give you about 100 years grace. When you return to earth you will find that our planet will have carried on normally for 100 years, while you have aged only 10 years.

There is a nice poem I learned at school which goes: ‘There was a young lady named Bright, who could travel at the speed of light, she went out one day, in a relative way, and came back the previous night!”

Being in a space ship carefully orbiting just outside the event horizon of a massive black hole has a similar effect. While the space ship does not need to travel at close to the speed of light, the massive gravitational attraction of the black hole will slow down your body clock. In this way travelling into the future will become common place when humanity is able to travel on interstellar voyages through our galaxy the Milky Way.

On the quantum level, this extra mass must have an effect on atomic particles as they become more massive. At this level, our astronaut will not be visible, there is just a cloud of atoms of many kinds which form his or her molecular structure. Perhaps the vibration of the strings which each atomic particle is composed of, slows down in such a way that it is relative to other atoms beyond the cloud which is our astronaut. Relativity is finite in atomic particles all the way down to the Planck scale, which is the real beauty of Albert Einstein’s equations. One would not expect the atoms in the astronaut’s body to change into other atom types as increasing mass slow down their strings, since the atoms will be true particles of Protons, Neutron’s and electron’s in the reality of the astronaut’s Now Moment of time.

Time travel into the past is a much greater problem, since our past ceases to exist behind each Now Moment as you move forward towards the future. In chapter three I explained how I believe this is so.

“Our perceived time line on which everything we see around us and observed in the Universe exists as a ‘Now Moment,’ that is a single unit of entropy in its time of existence. Our Now Moment constantly moves forward in a cosmic game of chance. In each Now Moment, we make choices, which leads to yes or no decision that affects our future.

wormhole716a“In the state of Quantum superposition, atomic particles have no character and I consider that in front of all of us, there is nothing except atomic particles in a state of superposition. As we make decisions and choices that shape our future, and observations, we move into the future, where these atomic particles change into the desired form shaping the world and Universe around us.

The opposite occurs at the exact same instant, in which atomic particles that formed our existence within our Now Moment, dissolves into a state of Quantum superposition. This means that we continually move forward into our future …”

Therefore, no time machine can move back through time. This is a necessity in all forms of physics as it prevents paradoxes from occurring. One example is the father-son paradox in which the father’s young son, John, travels back in time, and being a rogue, tracks down his father and kills him. This would mean that John never existed in his future, and therefore could not time travel to do the deed.

Physicists today believe that our universe is one of many, a multiverse, and that there are parallel worlds and universes in hyperspace which beneficial to time travellers.

To time travel into the past you need the ability to travel across the hyperspace between your Now Moment and another on a parallel planet Earth or into a parallel universe. This is possible in the fifth dimension, and equations show that worm holes can exist in space-time.

The equations of the theory of general relativity have valid solutions that contain wormholes. The first type of wormhole solution discovered was the Schwarzschild wormhole, which would be present in the Schwarzschild metric describing an eternal black hole, but it was found that it would collapse too quickly for anything to cross from one end to the other. Wormholes that could be crossed in both directions, known as traversable wormholes, would only be possible if exotic matter with negative energy density could be used to stabilize them.

Wikipedia gives the explanation for negative energy:

“The strength of the gravitational attraction between two objects represents the amount of gravitational energy in the field which attracts them towards each other. When they are infinitely far apart, the gravitational attraction and hence energy approaches zero. As two such massive objects move towards each other, the motion accelerates under gravity causing an increase in the positive kinetic energy of the system. At the same time, the gravitational attraction - and hence energy - also increase in magnitude. But the law of energy conservation requires that the net energy of the system does not change. This can only be resolved if the change in gravitational energy is negative, thus cancelling out the positive change in kinetic energy. Since the gravitational energy is getting stronger, this decrease can only mean that it is negative.”

In the universe, you will find a fair amount of negative energy in a binary system of black holes orbiting their common centre of gravity.

In the summer of 2017 twin black holes have been found in a quasar (designated PSO J334) so close that they are gravitationally bound and orbiting around one another in the final stages before they merge to form one colossal black hole, have been found in a quasar that existed around 10.3 billion years ago.

The combined mass of the binary black hole system in PSO J334 is ten billion times the mass of our Sun, which is enormous compared to the mass of the black hole at the centre of the Milky Way Galaxy, which has between 4.1 and 4.3 million times the mass of the Sun.

This would be the ideal place in the Universe to create a wormhole. Worm holes exist at the Planck scale as they make up the fabric of the universe. By pouring negative energy into one of these it would cause it to expand, ideally to a size that would allow an astronaut or even a small space ship to pass through.

The down side to this is that you would not know where the entrance of the worm hole is situated when you go into one. It may be located in another universe, another galaxy?

Worm holes may well exist, and an advance civilisation would be able to construct one of their own, allowing them to travel vast distances of galaxies in a short space of time, and one could be nearby without anyone realising. The fabric of the universe can be bent over sufficiently to allow a worm hole (a tunnel), to link the two regions of space-time together, creating a short cut through space.

Time travel which began as a possibility in science fiction books & films, will become science fact in the future as our technology advances sufficiently. In the chapter 7 I take a look at advanced civilisation and what their people would be capable of, and ultimately ourselves in the foreseeable future.

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