Friday, 10 November 2017

Quantum Era: The Beginning

Quantum Physics Wallpaper

As many times you've have heard about spooky branch of science that's popularly known as Quantum Mechanics ( How stylish name is this!), which is made to deal with smallest paricles' motions and interactions. As I too have puzzled you with my few of the articles in which I must have talked you about the smallest worlds that is Quantum World.  Now this series is especially made for curious people like me and you that will take you to journey  to the roots of Quantum Mechanics and so that we can understand our universe functionality better. That's why we are made...... to explore, to explore and to explore.
 Motion.         Motion is a concept through which a body/object change its position with the passage of time with respect to an observer. But one thing you might have observed that, in certain frame of reference, things never be at rest and you also wonder that we are sitting on chair at rest is not a rest position with respect to our position on Earth because our Earth is revolving around the sun at such enormous rate that one can't imagine so. Everything is in motion but it depends upon your view.  At first sight in ancient times, it is something incredibly uninteresting and trivial to calculate the motion of an object. People have been studying motion for almost thousands of years, but it was not until 1687. When Issac Newton formulated his three laws of motion, it became easy that people finally started to understand it more deeply leading to the birth of a new branch of physics called 'Mechanics'. And Mechanics is all about the motion of an object moving in space. You must have encountered with terms like- 'momentum', 'inertia', 'velocity', 'acceleration', 'jerk' etc..
                 It was going a very smooth journey to obtain favourable results from these calculations of motion as Newton and other scientists had laid the foundation of mechanics. Discovery of Calculus has also provided perfection to Classical Mechanics. It works well at macro levels and with the passage of time, people tried to apply the formulae of Classical Mechanics to the atomic level and eventually, at subatomic levels. When this confusion originated, then people began to realize the limitations of Classical Mechanics and finally, this realization of such incapability to find the motion related concepts of atoms led to formulation of Quantum Mechanics. 
         Now, what is 'Quantum Mechanics'?
Quantum Mechanics.    In this word, 'Quantum' means related to quanta, a term is given by Max Planck which I will explain to you thoroughly further. And the second word is 'Mechanics' which is a branch of physics which deals with the motion of an object with taking account the cause of motion that is the force required by an object to change its position. So the real explanation of Quantum Mechanics would be;
            Quantum Mechanics is a branch of physics which deal with objects from the so-called microworld like atoms. In this world, particles do not behave like macroworld since they do not behave as according to classical mechanics provived by Galileo and Newton. For that paradox, a new type of mechanics was discovered which deals with the particles' motions and interactions. This is only called Quantum Mechanics.
Watch this video for consideration:

How did Quantum theory got originated?

In the ancient history, there were many curious scientists who have predicted the presence of smallest individual particle from which all matter has come into existence but there was no proof until the modern science came into existence leading to the birth of Quantum Mechanics. In the year 1905, Albert Einstein proposed his special theory of Relativity in which he describes the motion of objects moving at very high speeds, that is near speed of light, leading to contraction of length of an object that's so-called, Length Contraction and slowing down of time that's called Time Dilation. But there was another theory originated at the same time that is called Quantum Theory whose cornerstone was laid by famous German physicist, Max Planck. 
                     Finally, we can say "Quantum Mechanics originated from scratch which had been originated from such curious questions especially from problems of thermodynamics, which classical mechanics couldn't solve". But there is still one question..............

How did Max Planck start off his journey to prove his Quantum Theory? How did he lay the foundation of Quantum Mechanics?
                                   There was a great challenge ahead of Max Planck to disprove the classical mechanics which had been tested many times and seemed to describe reality. Not until later when this theory started to fall apart did not come to light how horribly wrong everybody was. The first phenomenon which classical physics failed to explain is called the black body radiation.
              To understand this phenomenon it is necessary to know that all tangible bodies in the universe emit energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation, that is light. The amount of energy emitted by a body depends on several factors -                                 - such as the temperature or colour of the body the higher the temperature of a body, the higher the average frequency of light it emits. The reason we usually can't observe this radiation is that body is at room temperature emit predominately light from the infrared spectrum, which is not visible to the naked eye. Visible light is emitted by metal during melting. For example when their temperature reaches several hundred of degree Celsius, making it possible for us to see them glow.
    Physicists of the 19th century were trying to ascertain the spectral composition emitted by a body in relation to its temperature.                     
     To accomplish that, they used a simplified model of a body - The Black Body
              A black body is a hypothetical body that has to meet the following two conditions:

  • A black body absorbs all the electromagnetic radiation that strikes it (other body absorb merely a certain part of the whole spectrum and reflect the remaining light).
  • A black body stays in thermal equilibrium with its surroundings. (that is, has the same temperature as all bodies located within the same system).
This condition ensures that a spectrum emitted by a black body is determined purely by the temperature of the body. However, when physicists tried to establish the composition of such spectrum using classical physics, they obtained a result that did not coincide with reality whatsoever.        
          According to the Classical Physics, a black body would not emit the same amount of light of each frequency. However the higher the light's frequency, the more energy the light has. A black body would, therefore, emit huge quantities of energy in the form of high-frequency radiation.
        The black body radiation problem was solved by a German physicist Max Planck. He came up with an idea that bodies do not emit electromagnetic radiation continuously, but via small packets called quanta. He thought that electromagnetic wave can essentially be a set of very small energy packets or 'quanta', whose total energy determine the energy of the wave itself. 

        After such a foundation led by Max Planck of Quantum Mechanics seemed bearable to other critics but upcoming predictions of Quantum world were truly unbearable and completely shocking to metaphysics. The famous physicist, Albert Einstein also didn't take a side of Quantum predictions although he is known as God Father of Quantum physics.

      Since then, many physicists involved themselves in such explorations leading to the discovery of some extraordinary results and ideas which we are going to discuss in these Quantum Series.

                               Note to my readers: There is one problem that I am facing that involvement of specific equations of all such great ideas, because of my existing knowledge. I would assure you that soon, you will get all such mathematical interpretations of such ideas.
 But for now,
 "Take mercy on me plz".....LOL

Keep waiting for the next series and I assure there would be something special in that!
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